Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Joint Statement from President of the United States Donald J. Trump and President of Romania Klaus Iohannis

Office of the Press Secretary

Joint Statement from President of the United States Donald J. Trump 
and President of Romania Klaus Iohannis


As the Presidents of the United States and Romania, we stand together as friends and Allies to advance our robust and durable strategic partnership. Through our deepening partnership, we will create new opportunities for greater security, growth, and prosperity and be in better position to respond to shared global challenges and responsibilities.

We recall the Revolution of 30 years ago this December when brave Romanians overthrew a brutal dictatorship and set their country on the path to democracy, the rule of law, and a market economy. This year, we also mark with pride the 15th anniversary of Romania’s accession to North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

Together, our nations have carried out lasting efforts to modernize our armed forces and meet our NATO burden-sharing commitments. Our militaries stand shoulder to shoulder in defense of freedom and look to bolster our defense and deterrence posture on NATO’s Eastern Flank, including in the Black Sea, which is of strategic importance for transatlantic security. We also seek to avoid the security risks that accompany Chinese investment in 5G telecommunications networks.

The United States and Romania recognize that energy security is national security. We underscore our opposition to Nord Stream 2 and other projects that make our Allies and partners dependent on energy from Russia. Natural gas resources in Romania have the potential to increase the prosperity of our nations and to enhance Europe’s energy security. The United States and Romania will consider how best to improve the energy investment climate in Romania in ways that benefit both countries. We further urge our industries to work closely together to support Romania’s civil nuclear energy goals.

Our excellent law enforcement and anti-corruption partnership is firmly based on a mutual commitment to the rule of law and an independent judiciary, which are strongly supported by the Romanian people. We further stress that good governance forms the basis of our shared security and prosperity.

The United States and Romania proudly underscore the substantial trade growth between our two countries, as well as our common interest in shaping an investment climate that offers transparency, predictability, and stability. We therefore commit to strengthening our trade relationship further and to encouraging increased two-way investment.

The United States reiterates its support for Romania’s efforts to become eligible for entry into the Visa Waiver Program in accordance with the requirements of United States law.



1600 Daily The White House • August 20, 2019 In photos: Vice President Pence on Our Next Great Mission in Space

1600 Daily
The White House • August 20, 2019

In photos: Vice President Pence on our next great mission in space 

Last month, America celebrated the 50th anniversary of the 1969 Apollo 11 Moon landing, a moment that captivated the world. Today, during the National Space Council’s sixth meeting, Vice President Mike Pence outlined our next great mission in the heavens.

“As we gather here today, we do so recognizing that it's been 47 years since the last American set foot on the Moon. In fact, our great shuttle program, including the space shuttle Discovery behind me, was grounded nearly a decade ago,” the Vice President said at the National Air and Space Museum in Virginia.

“And the truth is, as all of you know, for too long America was content with low-Earth orbit, and missions focused on the Earth instead of aiming for the stars.”

🎬 Vice President Pence: “Our Moon to Mars mission is on track.”

By 2024, America will be back on the Moon. But now our ambition is greater than ever before. “This time our objective will be to establish a permanent presence on the lunar surface. And from there, we will develop the capabilities to journey to the red planet of Mars,” Vice President Pence said.

When President Donald J. Trump took office, one of his priorities was restoring America’s leadership in space. He started by quickly reviving the National Space Council, which had laid dormant for nearly a quarter-century. Along with that, the President gave a clear directive to send crewed missions to the Moon once again.

The next step was securing all the resources NASA would need. Earlier this year, President Trump signed into law NASA’s largest budget ever. Now, his Administration is working with Congress to secure $1.6 billion for new space exploration objectives.

“After two and a half years under the President’s leadership, America is leading in space once again. This President recognizes what the American people have known for more than a half a century,” Vice President Pence said. “Our security, our prosperity, and our very way of life, depend on American leadership and American leadership in space.”

In photos: Vice President Pence speaks at the National Air and Space Museum.

🎬 Watch: American astronauts will plant our flag on the surface of Mars 

President Trump welcomes leader of Romania 

President Trump hosted President Klaus Iohannis of Romania at the White House today, reaffirming the strong strategic partnership between our two nations. This year marks the 30th anniversary of Romania regaining its freedom and democracy from Communist rule.

Today, Romania is an invaluable NATO ally of the United States, meeting President Trump’s goal of dedicating at least two percent of its GDP to defense spending. Romania also provided one of the largest troop contributions to NATO’s mission in Afghanistan, in addition to supporting missions in Kosovo, Bosnia, and the Defeat-ISIS Coalition.

Romania supports the Trump Administration’s energy diversification efforts in Europe, which decrease European countries’ dependence on Russian energy sources. These efforts will increase investment opportunities for American companies, increase prosperity for the Romanian people, and improve energy security across all of Europe.

President Trump is celebrating America’s strong partnership with Romania!

Photo of the Day

Official White House Photo by Andrea Hanks
President Donald J. Trump welcomes Romanian President Klaus Iohannis to the South Portico of the White House | August 20, 2019

Presidential Memorandum on Launch of Spacecraft Containing Space Nuclear Systems

Office of the Press Secretary

August 20, 2019



               PROTECTION AGENCY
               SECURITY AFFAIRS

SUBJECT:        Launch of Spacecraft Containing Space Nuclear

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, I hereby direct the following:

    Section 1.  Purpose.  This memorandum updates the process for launches of spacecraft containing space nuclear systems.  Space nuclear systems include radioisotope power systems (RPSs), such as radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) and radioisotope heater units (RHUs), and fission reactors used for power and propulsion.

    The ability to use space nuclear systems safely and sustainably is vital to maintaining and advancing United States dominance and strategic leadership in space.  For United States launches of space nuclear systems, the Federal Government must ensure a rigorous, risk informed safety analysis and launch authorization process.  This memorandum establishes processes for Federal Government launches and launches for which the Department of Transportation (DOT) has statutory authority to license as commercial space launch activities (commercial launches).  These processes include transparent safety guidelines and are forward-looking and amenable to effective use of space nuclear systems for heating, power, and propulsion.  

    Sec. 2.  Policy.  The United States shall develop and use space nuclear systems when such systems safely enable or enhance space exploration or operational capabilities.  The Secretary of Energy shall maintain, on a full cost recovery basis, the capability and infrastructure to develop, furnish, and conduct safety analyses for space nuclear systems for use in United States Government space systems.  Executive departments and agencies (agencies) shall seek to ensure that safe application of space nuclear systems is a viable option for Federal Government and commercial space activities.

    Sec. 3.  Safety Guidelines.  (a)  All United States Government entities involved in the launch of spacecraft containing space nuclear systems (including in the licensing of non-Government launches) shall seek to ensure safe operation.  For any mission that includes a space nuclear system, mission planners and launch authorization authorities should, as appropriate, seek to ensure that:

        (i)    normal operation of the space nuclear system is consistent with applicable Federal, State, and local requirements;

        (ii)   an accident resulting in exposure in excess of 25 millirem but less than 5 rem total effective dose (TED), as that term is defined in section 835.2 of title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, to any member of the public is unlikely, such that the probability of such an event does not exceed 1 in 100;

        (iii)  an accident resulting in exposure in the range of 5 rem to 25 rem TED to any member of the public is extremely unlikely, such that the probability of such an event does not exceed 1 in 10,000; and

        (iv)   the probability of an accident resulting in exposure in excess of 25 rem TED to any member of the public does not exceed 1 in 100,000.

    (b)  Additional safety guidelines may be appropriate for the non-terrestrial operation of nuclear fission systems.  Within 1 year of the date of this memorandum, the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in coordination with the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Energy, shall submit to the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (APNSA) a report identifying guidelines for safe non-terrestrial operation of nuclear fission reactors, including orbital and planetary surface activities.

    Sec. 4.  Launch Authorization Processes.  Authorization for launches of spacecraft containing space nuclear systems shall follow a three-tiered process based upon the characteristics of the system, the level of potential hazard, and national security considerations.  "Federal Government missions," as the term is used in this section and section 5 of this memorandum, are non-commercial missions either conducted or sponsored by an agency.  Consistent with chapter 509 of title 51, United States Code, the Secretary of Transportation, or the Secretary's designee, is the licensing authority for commercial launches of spacecraft containing space nuclear systems in all three tiers.  Issuance of a launch authorization or license as described in this memorandum shall not relieve the mission sponsor or licensee of its obligations with respect to other applicable laws, regulations, policies, or agreements that may apply to its activities.
    (a)  Tier I shall apply to launches of spacecraft containing radioactive sources of total quantities up to and including 100,000 times the A2 value listed in Table 2 of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Specific Safety Requirements No. SSR-6 (Rev. 1), Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 2018 Edition.  For Federal Government missions in Tier I, the head of the sponsoring agency shall be the launch authorization authority.

    (b)  Tier II shall apply to:

        (i)    launches of spacecraft containing radioactive sources in excess of 100,000 times the A2 value referenced above;

        (ii)   any Tier I launches where the associated safety analyses determine that the probability of an accident during launch or subsequent operation resulting in an exposure in the range of 5 rem to 25 rem TED to any member of the public is equal to or greater than 1 in 1,000,000; and

        (iii)  any launches of spacecraft containing nuclear fission systems and other devices with a potential for criticality (defined as the condition in which a nuclear fission chain reaction becomes self-sustaining), when such systems utilize low-enriched uranium (less than 20 percent uranium-235 enrichment).  For Federal Government missions in Tier II, the head of the sponsoring agency shall be the launch authorization authority.  Tier II missions require additional safety review, as detailed in section 5 of this memorandum, and the launch authorization authority shall consider the resulting analysis and review results when making a launch authorization determination.

    (c)  Tier III shall apply to launches of any spacecraft containing a space nuclear system for which the associated safety analyses determine that the probability of an accident during launch or subsequent operation resulting in an exposure in excess of 25 rem TED to any member of the public is equal to or greater than 1 in 1,000,000.    

    Due to potential national security considerations associated with nuclear nonproliferation, Tier III shall also apply to launches of spacecraft containing nuclear fission systems and other devices with a potential for criticality when such systems utilize any nuclear fuel other than low-enriched uranium.

The President's authorization shall be required for Federal Government launches in Tier III.  When the sponsoring agency is the Department of Defense or an element of the Intelligence Community, the head of the sponsoring agency shall request the President's authorization for the launch through the APNSA.  In all other proposed Tier III Federal Government launches, the head of the sponsoring agency shall request the President's authorization for the launch through the Director of OSTP.  The Director of OSTP may authorize such launches, unless the Director of OSTP considers it advisable to forward the matter to the President for a decision.

    Sec. 5.  Safety Analysis and Review.  Nuclear safety analysis and review is a critical step before any launch of a space nuclear system.  Safety analysis should include an assessment of potential consequences to a maximally exposed individual member of the public in accident scenarios.  Safety analysis should address launch and any subsequent stages when accidents may result in radiological effects on the public or the environment, for instance, in an unplanned reentry from Earth orbit or during an Earth flyby.  To the extent possible, safety analyses and reviews should incorporate previous mission and review experience.

    (a)  For Federal Government missions in all tiers, the head of the sponsoring agency shall be responsible for ensuring compliance with requirements under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), 42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.  As the licensing authority for commercial space launches, the Secretary of Transportation is responsible for ensuring compliance with NEPA for commercial launches.

    (b)  For Federal Government missions in all tiers, the head of the sponsoring agency shall ensure that a mission Safety Analysis Report (SAR) be prepared.  For commercial launches of spacecraft containing space nuclear systems in all tiers, the Secretary of Transportation shall, if necessary, issue a notice of proposed rulemaking to require that a mission SAR is prepared to inform a launch determination, and to require review of the mission SAR in consultation with other agencies as appropriate.  The mission SAR shall demonstrate that safety analysis incorporates technical peer review, and shall include a concise, high-level summary of key risk information.  This summary should include:  the likelihood of an accident resulting in an exposure in excess of 5 rem TED to any member of the public; the number of individuals who might receive such exposure in an accident scenario; and comparisons of potential exposure levels to other meaningful measures such as nuclear space launch safety guidelines, background radiation, average public exposure from natural and manmade sources, and other relevant public safety standards.  When appropriate, a mission SAR may incorporate a system-specific SAR that establishes a safety basis for the space nuclear system.  The safety basis provides a set of conditions (a safety basis envelope) under which safety analysis and hazard controls provide assurance of safe operation for the given system.  In such cases, the mission SAR must either:

        (i)   demonstrate that the mission is within the safety basis envelope established in the system-specific SAR, in which case it is not necessary to repeat the analysis supporting the system-specific SAR; or

        (ii)  include supplemental safety analysis for any deviations that are outside of the established safety basis envelope and for which safety has therefore not yet been demonstrated.

Agencies responsible for system-specific SARs should review them annually and update them as necessary.

    (c)  Within 180 days of the date of this memorandum, the NASA Administrator shall establish an Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Board (INSRB).  The INSRB shall consist of representatives from the Departments of State, Defense, Energy, and Transportation, the Environmental Protection Agency, NASA, and, as appropriate, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.  Each of these agencies shall designate technically qualified personnel to the INSRB.  For Federal Government launches in Tier II and Tier III, the head of the sponsoring agency shall request of the NASA Administrator that the INSRB review the nuclear safety analysis, ultimately including the mission SAR, and report its findings, in the form of a Safety Evaluation Report, to the head of the sponsoring agency in order to inform the decision to proceed with launch and, for Tier III missions, inform any decision to request Presidential launch authorization.  When necessary to protect national security, the head of the sponsoring agency, in consultation with the APNSA, may restrict INSRB member participation in any mission review.  The INSRB shall evaluate the quality of the safety analysis and identify any significant gaps in analysis.  The INSRB may recommend areas for additional analysis where it identifies gaps, but it is not tasked with repeating or conducting its own analysis.  The INSRB shall engage early in the safety analysis process, after the conceptual design of the mission is generated, in order to identify gaps in time for mission planners to address them without creating unnecessary delays in the launch timeline.  Before completion of the mission SAR, the INSRB shall advise the head of the sponsoring agency of any omissions or gaps that the INSRB has identified in analysis that is planned or underway, and may provide recommendations for corrective action.  In licensing non-Federal Government launches in Tier II and Tier III, the Secretary of Transportation shall consult with the heads of any other agencies that the Secretary of Transportation deems appropriate to review the SAR in a similar manner, evaluate the quality of the safety analysis, and identify any significant gaps.  At the request of the Secretary of Transportation, the INSRB shall review any nuclear safety analysis associated with a potential commercial launch of a space nuclear system under review by the Secretary of Transportation.  The terms of any INSRB review, including the costs of such review, shall be agreed upon between the NASA Administrator and the head of the agency requesting INSRB review.

    (d)  Within 1 year of the date of this memorandum, the Secretary of Transportation shall issue public guidance for applicants seeking a license for a launch or reentry involving a space nuclear system.  This guidance shall describe the process used to evaluate any such license application, including relevant safety standards, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law.

    Sec. 6.  Reporting Requirements.  (a)  On an annual basis, the recipients of this memorandum shall provide a report to the Director of OSTP listing all launches that the agency has sponsored or licensed in the past calendar year of spacecraft using radioactive sources containing total quantities in the range of 1,000 times to 100,000 times the A2 value listed in Table 2 of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Specific Safety Requirements No. SSR-6 (Rev. 1), Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 2018 Edition, and listing all such launches planned for the coming calendar year.

    (b)  Any agency planning Tier II or Tier III launches shall provide an annual briefing to OSTP and the National Science and Technology Council on the status of safety analysis for any such planned missions.  The Secretary of Transportation shall provide a similar briefing within 120 days of accepting an application for a license pertaining to a commercial mission that will involve the launch or reentry involving a space nuclear system.

    Sec. 7.  Effect on Prior Memoranda.  This memorandum supersedes the section of the June 28, 2010, National Space Policy titled "Space Nuclear Power" and its corresponding section in Presidential Policy Directive–4.  The following paragraph replaces the ninth numbered paragraph of National Security Council Presidential Directive-25 (NSC/PD-25) of December 14, 1977 (as modified May 17, 1995, and May 8, 1996):

"9. Launching nuclear systems requires a separate procedure established in National Security Presidential Memorandum-20 of August 20, 2019 (Launch of Spacecraft Containing Space Nuclear Systems)."

    Sec. 8.  General Provisions.  (a)  Nothing in this memorandum shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

        (i)   the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

        (ii)  the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

    (b)  This memorandum shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

    (c)  This memorandum is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

                        DONALD J. TRUMP


Office of the Press Secretary


The future of Romania and Romania’s relationship with the United States is very, very bright.” – Donald J. Trump


CELEBRATING OUR PARTNERSHIP: President Donald J. Trump is reaffirming and strengthening the United States partnership with Romania. 

  • President Trump is welcoming President Klaus Iohannis of Romania to the White House to reaffirm and celebrate the strong strategic partnership between our two countries.
  • Romania is celebrating 30 years of freedom and democracy in 2019 and continues to make great progress in overcoming the legacy of communism.
  • The United States and Romania have growing security, energy, civil nuclear, and cyber relationships that benefit both of our countries.
  • Our two countries will continue to work together to meet common security challenges and enhance our economic and energy partnership even further.
  • President Trump intends to expand ties between our two countries by supporting Romania’s efforts to become eligible for entry into the Visa Waiver Program in accordance with the requirements of United States law.
SUPPORTING OUR STEADFAST ALLY: Romania is an invaluable NATO ally and supports United States and international security efforts in the region and globally.  
  • Marking 15 years since joining the Alliance, Romania has proven to be a strong NATO ally and is meeting its commitment to dedicate at least 2 percent of its GDP to defense spending.
    • Romania provided one of the largest troop contributions to NATO’s mission in Afghanistan and supports missions in Kosovo, Bosnia, and the Defeat-ISIS Coalition.
  • Our militaries are working together to strengthen deterrence on NATO’s Eastern Flank.
  • Following a previous meeting with President Trump, Romania is modernizing its military with several American systems, including Patriot air and missile defense systems.
  • Romania hosts a rotational presence of roughly 1,000 United States troops as well as a United States Aegis Ashore site that supports NATO Ballistic Missile Defense.
  • Romania is committed to working with the United States to combat the cybersecurity threats posed by Chinese vendors in 5G networks.
STRENGTHENING ENERGY SECURITY AND INVESTMENT: The United States will continue working with Romania to support energy security in Europe. 
  • The United States will work with Romania to improve its investment climate and help the country better use its vast natural gas resources.
    • These efforts will increase investment opportunities for American companies, increase prosperity for the Romanian people, and improve energy security across the region.
  • Romania supports the Trump Administration’s energy diversification efforts in Europe, which decrease European countries’ dependence on Russian energy sources.
    • Romania opposed Nord Stream II and other pipeline projects that increase Europe’s dependence on Russia.
  • The United States and Romania are strong supporters of the Three Seas Initiative, which is important to increasing energy market access and security.

West Wing Reads American Workers Are Winning

West Wing Reads

American Workers Are Winning

“The U.S. economy has added millions of jobs, and even long-neglected sectors like manufacturing are having a resurgence,” Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross writes in Fox Business. Economic health has rebounded from the lows of the Obama Administration.

“Among the continuous good economic news, wage growth for America’s workers has taken center stage. For the first time since 2009, year over year nominal hourly wage growth met or surpassed 3 percent under the Trump Administration.”

With inflation in check, “not only are wages growing but the slow growth in consumer prices means that American workers’ dollars are going farther.”

Click here to read more.
“Health care is the only good or service in the United States that Americans buy and use without first knowing its cost — and that needs to change," healthcare policy expert Scott Atlas writes for CNN Business. “The Trump administration is trying to institute a dose of free market reform that promises to disrupt American health care. In a flurry of pro-consumer moves, improving price transparency has been at the center of the administration's plan to reduce the cost of health care through competition.”
“Vice President Mike Pence said Monday that the trade agreement the Trump administration has forged with Mexico and Canada could be the ‘template for all our future trade deals’ with the European Union, Japan and China,” Chad Livengood reports in Crain’s Detroit Business. “Make no mistake about it, by passing the USMCA, it will strengthen the president's hand in negotiations with China,” the Vice President said.
U.S. Border Patrol agents apprehended a group of nearly 200 illegal immigrants near a base in New Mexico over the weekend. “The group consisted mostly of families and unaccompanied minors from Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador,” Danielle Wallace reports for Fox News. “Large groups like these exacerbate the current immigration process further impacting our workforce, facilities, and resources,” Interim Chief Patrol Agent Gloria Chavez said. “I commend the incredible work of our Border Patrol Agents who continue to push forward through this border crisis.”


Office of the Press Secretary


Oval Office


2:13 P.M. EDT
     Q    Are you coming to Romania, Mr. President?

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  I'd like to.

     Q    When?  When, Mr. President?

PRESIDENT TRUMP:  I don't know.  It's something we'll discuss.

     Q    What do you think about the visa (inaudible)?

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Well, thank you very much, everybody.  It's an honor to be with the President of Romania, who's highly respected and done a great job.  And I hear there's a little political season going on in Romania, but I would imagine you're going to do very well because you're very talented, you love the people.

And we've had a great relationship with Romania.  The United States and Romania have gotten along better than ever before.  So, I want to thank you for that.

And we have a big trade business going on, to be honest with you.  We have -- we do a lot of trade with Romania, and they're very talented people.  We buy, they buy.  And you have a lot of Romanian people in the United States, very importantly.  And they're tremendous people.  They work very hard.  Very, very successful.

     How many do you have in the United States?  Do you know?  Has anyone figured that out?

     PRESIDENT IOHANNIS:  We have quite a lot of Romanians in the States, yeah.

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  I think I know most of them, actually.

     PRESIDENT IOHANNIS:  (Laughs.)  Very good people.

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Yeah, they are.  They're a great people.

     PRESIDENT IOHANNIS:  Maybe quarter of a million or so.

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Yeah.  It's a lot.  It's a very large population.  But they -- and they love Romania, too, I will tell you that.  They never forgot Romania.  They're very much inclined that way, and that's a good thing.

     Well, I want to thank you, Mr. President, for being here.  It's a great honor.  Thank you very much.

     PRESIDENT IOHANNIS:  Thank you so much, Mr. President.  Great pleasure to be here.

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Would you like to say something?

     PRESIDENT IOHANNIS:  Yeah, I would, just on the line that it's great to be back here with you, Mr. President.  And now we have the opportunity to talk about our very good strategic partnership.  And under your strong leadership, we progressed and we will continue doing so.  This is very important for us, and I think we are on the right path, and I thank you for that.

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  I think we are on the right path.  A lot of interesting things happening also in your country, but we appreciate the trade.  And we're going to have a big meeting in a little while after this.  We're going to have a private meeting, and we're going to have a meeting in the Cabinet Room with a lot of your officials.


     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  And we look forward to that.

     Yes, any questions?  John?

     Q    Mr. President, what sort of contingency steps or plans is the White House thinking about to stave off any kind of economic slowdown?  We've heard that there's been some talk of a payroll tax cut kicked around, some other tax cuts.  You've been talking about a cut in the Fed rate, quantitative easing.  What are you looking at?

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Well, I'd like to see a cut in the Fed rate because that should've happened a long time ago.  I think they're being very tardy in not doing in and not having done it sooner.  They raised too quickly.  And, you know, I've been quite vocal on that.

They also did quantitative tightening, which was ridiculous.  And so -- and despite that, you know, if you look -- I guess you could call it "normalized" -- but if you look, our economy is doing fantastically.  And if you take a look at the previous administration, they weren’t paying interest.  They had no interest rates.  They had loosening, not tightening.  And, frankly, it's a big difference.

And our economy is incredible.  Our jobs -- you look at the jobs market.  But you have to be proactive, and so we really need a Fed cut rate, because if you look at what's going on with the Europe -- European Union, as an example, they're cutting.  You take a look at Germany and what they're doing, and what they're paying -- I mean, they're actually doing something inverse.  They've never seen -- nobody has ever seen it before.  And we have to at least keep up to an extent.

     So, right now, we're paying a very much higher rate of interest, and we didn’t follow the world.  And generally speaking, that's okay.  But you can't have that much of a disparity.  So we're looking for a rate cut.

We could be really greatly helped if the Fed would do its job and do a substantial rate cut also.  They were doing quantitative tightening; very bad to do.  They should do easing -- actual easing.  No tightening.  Or at a minimum, they should be doing nothing about that.  But they have to do a rate cut.

     The other thing is, you know, we're looking at various tax reductions.  But I'm looking at that all the time anyway -- tax reductions.  That's one of the reasons we're in such a strong economic position.

     We're, right now, the number one country anywhere in the world, by far, as an economy.  Europe has got a lot of problems, and Asia has got a lot of problems.

If you look at China, China has had the worst year they've had in 27 years.  And they want to make a deal with us, but I can tell you I'm not ready to make a deal.  Unless they're going to make the right kind of a deal, I'm not ready to make a deal.  So I don’t know, but I will say this: Something will happen.  It may be soon; it may be a little bit later.  But China very much wants to make a deal.

     Q    What kind of tax cuts would you look at?  We've heard again a potential cut in the payroll tax, indexing capital gains.  What would you accept?

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Well, you know, we've been talking about indexing for a long time.  And many people like indexing, and it can be done very simply.  It can be done directly by me.  And so we've been looking at that.  As you probably have heard, I can do it directly.

     So we're talking about indexing.  And we're always looking at the capital gains tax, payroll tax.  We're looking at -- I would love to do something on capital gains.  We're talking about that.  That's a big deal; it goes through Congress.

Payroll tax is something that we think about and a lot of people would like to see that, and that very much affects the working -- the workers of our country.  And we have a lot of workers.  Right now, by the way, we have more people working today than we've ever had before in the history of our country.  We have almost 160 million people working today.

     I think the word "recession" is a word that's inappropriate because it's just a word that the -- certain people -- I'm going to be kind -- certain people, and the media, are trying to build up because they'd love to see a recession.  We're very far from a recession.

In fact, if the Fed would do its job, I think it would have a tremendous spurt of growth.  A tremendous spurt.  The Fed is psychologically very important.  Less so, actually, but very psychologically important.

And if the Fed would do its job, which it's really done very poorly over the last year and a half, you would see a burst of growth like you've never seen before.  And that would be lowering interest rates and maybe putting some -- if you look at what China is doing, if you look at what Germany is doing, if you look at what so many countries are doing -- putting some money in, because we want to compete with these other countries.  So I think that we actually are set for a tremendous surge of growth, if the Fed would do its job.  That's a big "if," frankly.

But they should -- the Fed should -- the Fed should be cutting.  And I would say they should say, at a minimum, 100 basis points over a period of time, not at one time.  But over a period of time.

     Q    Mr. President, can the country afford tax cuts when we're already running trillion-dollar deficits?

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Well, I'm not talking about -- I'm not talking about doing anything at this moment.  But indexing is something that a lot of people have liked for a long time.  And it's something that would be very easy to do.  And a lot of people have been talking about indexing for many years, and it’s something that I am certainly thinking about.

     I can say that a majority of the people in the White House, at the level that does this kind of thing, they like indexing.  So it is something I’m thinking about.

     Payroll taxes -- I’ve been thinking about payroll taxes for a long time.  Whether or not we do it now or not is -- it’s not being done because of recession, because we are -- legitimately, if we had a cut in interest rates by the Fed -- if they would do their job properly, and if they would do a meaningful cut, because they raise too fast, you would see growth like you’ve not seen ever in this country.

     Now, if you go from the election -- that great November 8th day -- if you go from November 9th to present, you’re talking about almost a 60 percent increase in the stock market.  You’re talking about unemployment numbers that are the lowest in history, in many categories, and, overall, almost the lowest ever, in the history of our country.  I think it was 1969.  And we are set to surpass that number.  I mean, our country is doing very well.

     When I spoke to the President, we were just walking in and he said, “Congratulations on the great success of your economy and your country.”  And I appreciated that.  But our country is doing very well.

     Q    Mr. President, would you agree strengthening American military forces in Romania?

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Well, it’s one of the things we’ll be talking about today, I assume.  You might be bringing that up.  But it’s something we’ll talk about.

     Q    Mr. President, next year, you host the G7.  Would you like to have Vladimir Putin back in the G7 and make it the G8 again?

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  So it was the G8 for a long time, and now it’s the G7.  And a lot of the time, we talk about -- we talk about Russia.  We’re talking about Russia because I’ve gone to numerous G7 meetings.  And I guess President Obama, because Putin outsmarted him -- President Obama thought it wasn’t a good thing to have Russia in, so he wanted Russia out.

But I think it’s much more appropriate to have Russia in.  It should be the G8, because a lot of the things we talk about have to do with Russia.  So I could certainly see it being the G8 again.  And if somebody would make that motion, I would certainly be disposed to think about it very favorably.

     But, as you know, for most of the time, it was the G8.  It included Russia.  And President Obama didn’t want Russia in because he got outsmarted.  Well, that’s not the way it really should work.

     Q    Mr. President, two years ago, you said that including Romania in the Visa Waiver Program is a subject that should be discussed.


     Q    In this meeting, will you discuss this issue?

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  We’ve spent a lot of time on it.  We’ve spent a lot of time discussing it already.  Our countries have been discussing it, and we’re going to -- we’re taking it up today in a very important meeting right after this one.

Do you like the idea?  It sounds like you like the idea, right?  The waiver -- do you like the idea?  Okay.  No, it’s something we’re thinking about.

     Q    Mr. President, on Venezuela, is the White House in contact with the Maduro regime --


     Q    -- with his number two, Cabello?

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Well, we’re -- we are in touch.  We’re talking to various representatives of Venezuela.  We’re helping Venezuela as much as we can.  We’re staying out of it, but we are helping it, and it needs a lot of help.

It’s an incredible tribute to something bad happening, and the something bad is socialism.  And it’s amazing because, 15 years ago, it was one of the wealthiest countries.  Now it’s one of the poorest countries.  It has oil reserves; it has a lot of things going, but it’s a very sad thing what’s happened.  They don’t have water.  They don’t have food.

And we are helping a lot.  We are talking to the representatives at different levels of Venezuela.  Yes.

Q    To Cabello?

PRESIDENT TRUMP:  I don’t want to say who, but we are talking at a very high level.

Q    What’s the status of the trade deal that you want to seal with Boris Johnson at the G7?

PRESIDENT TRUMP:  So, I spoke with Boris Johnson.  I think he’s going to be a great Prime Minister.  I think he’s going to do a fantastic job.  I’ve known him.  A lot of people know that we have a very good relationship.  I think he’ll be far superior.  I think he’ll do something that will be a very -- I think he’s going to be very important for the UK.  I think he’s going to be very important.

Dealing with the European Union -- I hate to say this to you, but dealing with the European Union is very difficult.  They drive a hard bargain.  They’re represented by Jean-Claude, who is a friend of mine, but he’s a tough man.  He’s a very, very tough man, and he’s a great negotiator.  And we have all the cards in this country because all we’d have to do is tax their cars and they would give us anything they wanted because they send millions of Mercedes over.  They send millions of BMWs over.

But we’re talking to the European Union and we’re going to see if we can work something out.  But I will say this: Dealing with the UK, they have not treated the UK very well.  That’s a very tough bargain they’re driving, the European Union.  That’s a very tough bargain.  And I think that UK has the right man in charge right now -- the right person in charge, in the form of Boris.

Q    And if I can turn to Afghanistan: What is your current thinking on pulling out the United States troops?
PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Well, we’re talking to the government of Afghanistan, we’re talking to the Taliban, and we’re talking to others.  And we’re looking at different things.

We’ve been there for 18 years.  It’s ridiculous.  We have taken it down a notch.  We’re at about 13,000 people right now -- 13,000 Americans.  NATO has some troops there too, by the way.  And we’re having good discussions.  We’ll see what happens.  We’ll see what happens.

Look, it’s 18 years.  We’re like -- we’re not really fighting; we’re a -- almost more of a police force over there.  It’s been so many years.  But we’re like a police force.  And we’re not supposed to be a police force.

And as I’ve said, and I’ll say it any number of times -- and this is not using nuclear -- we could win that war in a week if we wanted to fight it.  But I’m not looking to kill 10 million people.  I’m not looking to kill 10 million Afghans, because that’s what would have to happen, and I’m not looking to do that.

But it’s a war that has been going on for almost 19 years now, and, frankly, it’s ridiculous.  But, with that being said, it’s a dangerous place, and we have to always keep an eye on it.

Q    It sounds like you’d like to pull completely out, if you could.

PRESIDENT TRUMP:  I’d like to look at various alternatives.  One of the alternatives is going on right now.  We’re talking about a plan -- I don’t know whether or not the plan is going to be acceptable to me.  And maybe it’s not going to be acceptable to them.  But we are talking.  We have good talks going, and we’ll see what happens.  This is more than other Presidents have done.

But we have brought it down.  We are bringing some of our troops back.  But we have to have a presence.  Yes.

Q    Mr. President, could you clarify your position on enhanced background checks?  After El Paso and Dayton, you seemed to be fully in support --


Q    -- of enhanced measures.  When you were leaving Bedminster, you seemed to suggest that we already do have strong background laws, which a lot of people read as you dialing back (inaudible).

PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Well, we do have.  I mean, I’m not doing that to be cute.  We have very, very strong background checks right now.  But we have, sort of, missing areas and areas that don’t complete the whole circle.  And we’re looking at different things.

And I have to tell you that it is a mental problem.  And I’ve said it a hundred times: It’s not the gun that pulls the trigger; it’s the person that pulls the trigger.  These are sick people, and it is also that kind of a problem.

And we’re looking at mental institutions, which we used to have.  Like, as an example, where I come from in New York, they closed up almost all of their mental institutions -- or many of them -- and those people just went onto the streets.  And they did it for budgetary reasons.  Well, New York is not unique; they’ve done that in many places.

Q    Would you support either of the House bills that were passed earlier this year?

PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Well, I’m not going to get into that.  But we are in very meaningful discussions with the Democrats.  And I think the Republicans are very unified.  We are very strong on our Second Amendment.  The Democrats are not strong at all on the Second Amendment.  I would say they’re weak on the Second Amendment, and we have to be careful of that.

The Democrats would, I believe -- I think they’d give up the Second Amendment.  And the people that -- a lot of the people that put me where I am are strong believers in the Second Amendment -- and I am, also.  And we have to be very careful about that.  You know, they call it the “slippery slope,” and all of the sudden, everything gets taken away.  We’re not going to let that happen.

Q    President Iohannis --

PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Yeah, go ahead, please.

Q    For Mr. President Iohannis, will you discuss the issue of the fight against corruption in Romania with President Trump?  Will you discuss this issue?

PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Please, go ahead.

     PRESIDENT IOHANNIS:  Well, I hope so, because we have good results.  And I want to share those with President Trump.

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  And what is your question?

     Q    I was asking about the fight against corruption in Romania.

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  So nice to have a question about Romania.

     Q    So I ask -- I ask you, will you discuss this issue, the fight against corruption, with your Romanian counterpart?

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Sure, I will.  Sure.

     Q    Last time you praised President --

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Sure, I will.  Of course, I will. 

     Q    Last time you praised --

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  But I think that this is a man that can solve the corruption problem in Romania.  And he’s made big strides, from what I hear.  I haven’t been there recently.  But he’s made very big strides.  And I think he’s the man that can solve the corruption problem.

     There are a number of really terrific countries like Romania, but they have a tremendous corruption problem.  And I’ve heard you’ve made tremendous progress.

     PRESIDENT IOHANNIS:  We did, sir.

     Q    Mr. President, what’s the status of your foreign aid cut package?  Do you still support cutting (inaudible)?

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Well, we’re looking at it.  And we’re looking at it in different ways.  And we’re talking to Republicans and Democrats about it.  And certain things we can save and certain things -- it probably could be, you know, a pennywise.  Maybe it’s a pennywise.  We’ll see.  But we are looking at it.

     And we have some things that are on the table very much.  And we’ll let you know over the next, probably, sooner than a week.

     Q    Mr. President, your administration has been taking steps to make it easier to discriminate against LGBT people in the workforce.  Are you okay with those actions?

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Well, you know, I just got an award and an endorsement yesterday from a -- the exact group, a group.  They gave -- you saw that.  They gave me the endorsement yesterday.  And I was very honored to -- is it Log Cabin?  The Log Cabin group.  And I was very honored to receive it.

     No, I’ve done very well with that community.  Some of my biggest supporters are of that community.  And I think they -- and I talk to them a lot about it.  I think I’ve done really very well with that community.

     As you know, Peter Thiel and so many others, they’re -- they’re with me all the way.  And they like the job I’m doing.  And I just got a big endorsement from the Log Cabin group.


     Q    Mr. President, you keep insisting that your trade war with China -- the trade war with China is not affecting the U.S. economy.  But a lot of economists disagree with that.  And they worry that if China goes into a recession, they’ll pull us down with it.

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Well -- well, okay.  Let me -- let me tell you something.  Number one, we’re doing very well as an economy.  But somebody had to take China on.  You know, I read and I see so much and I read so much, and I’ll see these economists saying, “Oh, give up.  Give up on China.  Give up."

China has been ripping this country off for 25 years -- for longer than that.  And it’s about time, whether it’s good for our country or bad for our country short term.  Long term, it’s imperative that somebody does this because our country cannot continue to pay China $500 billion a year because stupid people are running it.

     So I don’t mind this question.  Whether it’s good or bad, short term, is irrelevant.  We have to solve the problem with China because they’re taking out $500 billion a year-plus.  And that doesn’t include intellectual property theft and other things.  And also, national security.

So, I am doing this whether it’s good or bad for your -- your statement about, “Oh, will we fall into a recession for two months?”  Okay?  The fact is, somebody had to take China on.  My life would be a lot easier if I didn’t take China on.  But I like doing it because I have to do it.  And we’re getting great results.

China has had the worst year they’ve had in 27 years.  And a lot of people are saying the worst year they’ve had in 54 years.  Okay?  And frankly, I don’t want that to happen, but it does put us in a good negotiating position, doesn’t it?  And China wants to make a deal, and that’s good.  But they have to make a deal that’s fair to us.  It can’t be a deal that’s not fair to us.

And you should be happy that I’m fighting this and I’m fighting this battle, because somebody had to do it.  We couldn’t let this go -- I don’t even think it’s sustainable to let go on what was happening.  They were stealing all of our intellectual property ideas.  The theft was incredible.  They call it “intellectual property theft.”  And they value it at $300 billion a year.  Who knows how they value it?  I know how to value dollars; I don’t know how to value intellectual property theft.  But they have experts that say it’s at least $300 billion a year, where they steal it.

Somebody had to do something with China.  Obama should have done it.  Bush should have done it.  Clinton should have done it.  They all should have done it.  Nobody did it; I’m doing it.

     So what do you say?  “Oh, my trade deals are causing them.”  My trade deals aren’t causing a problem.  This is something that had to be done.  The only difference is I’m doing it.  I could be sitting here right now with a stock market that would be up 10,000 points higher if I didn’t want to do it.  But I think we have no choice but to do it.  And a lot of people that really know, people that love our country, they’re saying, “Thank you very much for taking it on.”  And we’re winning because they’re having the worst year they’ve had in decades.  And it’s only going to get worse.

China has lost 2 million jobs in the last month and a half because they’re moving -- the people, the companies are moving to non-tariffed countries.  They’ve lost over 2 million jobs in a very short period of time.  They’re going to lose a lot more jobs.  And if I didn’t help certain companies -- there are American companies like Apple -- for a very short period of time, I may help them, only until they do what they have to do, which is probably move from China.  Because this would be a very short term.  If I didn’t help them, they would -- I mean, they would be -- they would have a big problem.

     Here’s the thing: Somebody had to take on what China was doing to the United States economically.  We’re winning big.  I took it on.  And it should have been done by previous Presidents, but I took it on.  And I’m happy to do it because it had to be done.  And the smart people say, “Thank you very much.”  And the dumb people have no idea.  And then you have the political people, and they go with the wind.

But they all know -- even Senator Schumer said, “Wow, Trump is doing a great job with China.”  I couldn’t believe that.  But Schumer thinks I’m doing the right thing.  And he’s doing the right thing by saying it because he knows that China was a big economic threat.  And they were taking all of that money that they were making from us, and they were building planes and ships and lots of other things.  And we can’t let that happen.

Q    Mr. President, on China, there is a new study out of Australia that suggests with the current Chinese military posture in the South China Sea, Indo-Pacific region, it could wipe out most U.S. bases within a number of hours.  Is that something that keeps you up at night?

PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Well, nothing keeps me up at night.  I’ll tell you, we could wipe out anything we -- we have the most powerful in the world.  And when I came in two and a half years ago, we were in a very bad position.  Now we’re in a very strong position.  We got $700 billion and $716 billion and then $738 billion.  We have the strongest military in the world right now.  And we’re getting very close to finishing that whole rebuilding.  We’ve rebuilt the military.
Right now, there’s nobody that’s even close to us, militarily.  Not even close.

Q    So it doesn’t concern you at all that the Chinese military --

PRESIDENT TRUMP:  No, because they’d pay a price that they wouldn’t want to pay.

Q    Is John Sullivan your choice for U.S. ambassador (inaudible)?

PRESIDENT TRUMP:  He’s somebody that’s being put up and respected very much.  To Russia?

Q    Yes, sir.

PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Yeah.  Very respected.

Q    So, he’s your pick?  Or you’re still --

PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Well, I know that Mike Pompeo likes him very much.  And he’s very respected.  He could very well be.  Yeah.

Q    Okay.  Thanks.

Q    What about Huawei, Mr. President?  Do you think partners, like Romania here, should look into the business of Huawei in order to make a good decision whether --

PRESIDENT TRUMP:  They’re doing that.  Romania is doing that.

Q    Mr. President, Afghanistan again.  The Taliban are talking to the U.S. but they’re not talking to the Afghan government.  If the U.S. were to draw down and the Taliban went on the offensive, would the U.S. come and rescue, say, the Afghan government?

PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Well, the Taliban does not respect the government, the Afghan government.  They have no respect for the Afghan government.  And I understand that and I know that.  And they haven’t been exactly getting along for a long period of time.

But we’ve been a peacekeeper there, in a way, for 19 years.  And at a certain point, you have to say, “That’s long enough.”  I go to Walter Reed and I see young men that step on a bomb and they lose their legs, they lose their arms, and in some case, they lose both and their face on top of it.  And they’re living.  And again, we could win that, but I don’t want to do what we would have to do to win it.  And I think most people agree with me on that.

     Q     Would you commit to protecting the Afghan government, should they?

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Right now, what we're doing is we're negotiating with the government and we're negotiating with the Taliban, and we'll see what happens from it, what's coming from it.

I will say this: The Taliban would like to stop fighting us.  They would like to stop fighting us.  They've lost a lot.  But we’ll see what happens.

And, remember, it's a tough place.  The Soviet Union became Russia because of Afghanistan.  That’s what happened.  Very simple.  They became Russia because of Afghanistan.  Somebody would say, "Oh, well, would Russia go in?"  I said, "If they want, let them.  I think they tried that before, however.  Didn’t work out too well."

     Q    Can the Taliban be trusted?  Or could we be right back to where to we were pre-9/11?

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Nobody can be trusted.  Nobody can be trusted.

     Q    Are you worried that we couldn’t be back to where we were pre-9/11?

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  In my world -- in this world, I think nobody can be trusted.

     Q    But could we be back to where we were pre-9/11 with the Taliban in complete and total control of Afghanistan?

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Well, that’s what we have to watch.  And we'll always have intelligence, and we'll always have somebody there.

     But you can say that about a lot of places, Jon.  You know, doesn’t have to be that sector.  But that does seem to be the Harvard University of terrorism.  Okay?  It seems to be.  And we'll always have somebody there.

     And if the Taliban were -- were really right in what they're saying, they would stop that from happening.  Because they could stop that from happening very easily.

Okay?  So, we'll see.

     Q    The crisis between India and Pakistan --

PRESIDENT TRUMP:  It's a big deal.

Q    -- and I know you've had some number of discussions -- is that solvable?

     PRESIDENT TRUMP:  Well, they've been having this -- these talks for hundreds of years, even under different names.  But this is -- but it's Kashmir.  And Kashmir is a very complicated place.  You have the Hindus and you have the Muslims, and I wouldn’t say they get along so great.  And that’s what you have right now.

And you have millions of people that want to be ruled by others, and maybe on both sides.  And you have two countries that haven’t gotten along well for a long time.  And, frankly, it's a very explosive situation.

I spoke to Prime Minister Khan.  I spoke with, yesterday, also, Prime Minster Modi.  They're both friends of mine.  They're great people.  They're great people.  And they love their countries.  And they're in a very tough situation.

Kashmir is a very tough situation.  And, you know, we're talking about -- this has been going on for decades and decades.  Shooting.  I don’t mean shooting like shooting a rifle, I mean like major shooting of howitzers, of -- you know, of heavy arms.  And it's been going on for a long period of time.

But I get along really well with both of them.  As you know, Prime Minister Khan was here just recently.  And I was with -- I'm going to be with Prime Minister Modi.  I'll be with him over the weekend in France.

So, you know, I think we're helping the situation.  But there's tremendous problems between those two countries, as you know.  And I will do the best I can to mediate or do something.  Great relationship with both of them, but they are not exactly friends at this moment.  Complicated situation.  A lot has to do with religion.  Religion is a complicated subject.

Q    On Israel, Congresswoman Ilhan Omar, yesterday, said that the United States should rethink its policy of aid toward Israel after she and Congresswomen Tlaib were denied entry.  Congresswomen Tlaib was later allowed to come in, but she decided not to.  Should there be any change in U.S. aid to Israel?

PRESIDENT TRUMP:  No.  And you should see the horrible things that Tlaib has said about Israel, and "AOC plus three." That's what I call it.  "AOC" -- just take "AOC plus three."  And you should see the things that the four of them have said about Israel over the last couple of years.

I mean, Omar is a disaster for Jewish people.  I can't imagine, if she has any Jewish people in her district, that they could possibly vote for her.  But what Omar has said, what Tlaib has said.

And then, yesterday, I noticed for the first time, Tlaib with the tears.  All of a sudden, she starts with tears.  Tears.  And I don’t buy it.  I don’t buy it.  I don’t buy it for a second because I've seen her in a very vicious mood at campaign rallies -- my campaign rallies -- before she was a congresswoman.  I said, "Who is that?"  And I saw a woman that was violent and vicious and out of control.

And all of a sudden, I see this person who's crying because she can’t see her grandmother.  She can see her grandmother.  They have her permission to see her grandmother, but she grandstanded and she didn’t want to do it.

So, that’s a decision of Israel.  That’s not -- a lot of people are saying that was my decision.  That’s a decision of -- of Israel.  They can let them in if they want, but I don’t think they want to.  When you read the things that they've said about Israel -- how bad.  And if you look at their itinerary before they found out -- you take a look at their itinerary, that was all going to be a propaganda tour against Israel.

So, I don’t blame Israel for doing what they did.  I have nothing to do with it.  But I don’t blame them for doing what they did.  I think it would’ve been very bad to let them in, including the four -- I'm talking about all four -- but these two that wanted to get in: Omar and Tlaib.

And I think it would be a very bad thing for Israel, but Israel has to do what they want to do.  But I would not cut off aid to Israel.  And I can't even believe that we're having this conversation.

Five years ago, the concept of even talking about this -- even three years ago -- of cutting off aid to Israel because of two people that hate Israel and hate Jewish people -- I can't believe we're even having this conversation.  Where has the Democratic Party gone?  Where have they gone where they're defending these two people over the State of Israel?

And I think any Jewish people that vote for a Democrat, I think it shows either a total lack of knowledge or great disloyalty.

All right?  Thank you very much everybody.

                                                 END                2:46 P.M. EDT